Saturday, 1 April 2017

Origin of At-Tahiyyatu (Tashahhud)




Did Tashahhud Originated During the Mi‘raj?

Quote:

" The origin of the tashahhud and that it happened during the ascent of our Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) to heaven (the Mi‘raaj) is something for which there is no basis in Islam.

The scholars of the Standing Committee were asked:

 Is the tashahhud that we recite in the prayer what the Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) said when he prostrated at Sidrat al-Muntaha during the Mi‘raj?

They replied: It was narrated that Ibn Mas‘ood (may Allah be pleased with him) said:
“The Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) taught me the Tashahhud, holding my hand between his hands, just as he would teach me a Surah from the Quran:
 ‘At-tahiyyatu Lillahi wa’s-salawatu wa’t-tayyibat, as-salamu ‘alayka ayyuha’n-Nabiyyu wa rahmat-Allahi wa barakatuhu. As-salamu ‘alayna wa ‘ala ‘ibad-Illah is-saliheen. Ash-hadu an la ilaha ill-Allah wa ash-hadu anna Muhammadan ‘abduhu wa rasooluhu (All compliments, prayers and pure words are due to Allah. Peace be upon you, O Prophet, and the mercy of Allah and His blessings. Peace be upon us, and on the righteous slaves of Allah. I bear witness that none has the right to be worshipped except Allah, and I bear witness that Muhammad is His slave and Messenger).’

This was narrated by the jama‘ah.
According to another version, the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) said: “When one of you sits during the prayer, let him say: al-tahiyyatu Lillahi…” … and when he came to the words, “wa ‘ala ‘ibad-Illah al-saaliheen”, he said: “If you do that, you will have greeted with salam every righteous slave of Allah in heaven and on earth.” And at the end he said: “Then let him choose whatever he wants to ask for.” Agreed upon. 

Ahmad narrated from Abu ‘Ubaydah, from his father ‘Abd-Allah ibn Mas‘ood (may Allah be pleased with him) that he said: The Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) taught him the tashahhud and instructed him to teach it to the people: “Al-tahiyyatu Lillahi…” and he quoted it.

Al-Tirmidhi said: 
The hadeeth (narration) of Ibn Mas‘ood  (may Allah be pleased with him) is the soundest hadeeth about the tashahhud, and is to be acted upon according to most of the scholars among the Sahabah (Companions) and Tabi‘een (Successors). Abu Bakr al-Bazzar said: It is the soundest hadeeth about the tashahhud. And he said: It was narrated via twenty-odd hadeeths. Among those who were certain about that was al-Baghawi in Sharh al-Sunnah. End quote. 

Thus you will know that this format is the soundest that has been proven from the Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him). 

*With regard to whether the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) recited the tashahhud when he was prostrating at Sidrat al-Muntaha on the night of the Mi‘raj, we do not know of any basis for saying that he prostrated in that place on the night of the Mi‘raj. 

Shaykh ‘Abd al-‘Azeez ibn Baz, Shaykh ‘Abd al-Razzaq ‘Afeefi, Shaykh ‘Abd-Allah ibn Ghadyan, Shaykh ‘Abd-Allah ibn Qa‘ood. [Fatawa al-Lajnah al-Daimah, 7/6,7] [End quote.]

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Quote:

Anwar Shāh al-Kashmīrī (Deobandi), in his al-ʿArf al-Shadhī:
وذكر بعض الأحناف قال رسول الله – – في ليلة الإسراء : «التحيات لله» إلخ ، قال الله تعالى : السلام عليك أيها النبي» إلخ ، قال رسول الله – -: «السلام علينا وعلى عباد: الله» إلخ ، ولكني لم أجد سند هذه الرواية ، وذكره في الروض الأنف .
And some anafīs mentioned…” then quoted the report; he continues:  “However, I did not find a chain to this narration, and [Imām al-Suhaylī] mentioned it in al-Raw al-Unuf.”
[Al-ʿArf al-Shadhī under adīth (289). Note: Some of the scholars named in the previous passages were not of a anafī background.]

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Mulla Ali Qāri (ra) the author of “Mirqāt-ul-Mafātīh”, the commentary on “Mishkāt-ul-Masābīh” explains the origin of Tashahhud as follows:

قَالَ ابْنُ الْمَلَكِ: رُوِيَ: أَنَّهُ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ لَمَّا عُرِجَ بِهِ أَثْنَى عَلَى اللَّهِ تَعَالَى بِهَذِهِ الْكَلِمَاتِ فَقَالَ اللَّهُ تَعَالَى: «السَّلَامُ عَلَيْكَ أَيُّهَا النَّبِيُّ وَرَحْمَةُ اللَّهِ وَبَرَكَاتُهُ، فَقَالَ عَلَيْهِ السَّلَامُ: السَّلَامُ عَلَيْنَا وَعَلَى عِبَادِ اللَّهِ الصَّالِحِينَ، فَقَالَ جِبْرِيلُ: أَشْهَدُ أَنْ لَا إِلَهَ إِلَّا اللَّهُ، وَأَشْهَدُ أَنَّ مُحَمَّدًا عَبْدُهُ وَرَسُولُهُ»

Ibn Al-Malak (RA) says: It has been narrated when the Prophet Sallallahu ‘Alayhi Wasallam was taken up (on the occasion of Mi’raj), he praised Allah Ta’ala with the following words:

 التَّحِيَّاتُ لِلَّهِ وَالصَّلَوَاتُ وَالطَّيِّبَاتُ

Allah (SWT) replied:

 السَّلاَمُ عَلَيْكَ أَيُّهَا النَّبِيُّ وَرَحْمَةُ اللَّهِ وَبَرَكَاتُهُ

Then the Prophet Sallallahu Alayhi Wasallam said:

 السَّلاَمُ عَلَيْنَا وَعَلَى عِبَادِ اللَّهِ الصَّالِحِينَ

 Then Jibreel (AS) said: [1]

أَشْهَدُ أَنْ لاَ إِلَهَ إِلَّا اللَّهُ، وَأَشْهَدُ أَنَّ مُحَمَّدًا عَبْدُهُ وَرَسُولُهُ

Yusuf Binnori refers to this incident in “Ma’ārif As-Sunan” as follows: [2]
واما قوله السلام عليك أيها النبي ورحمة الله وبركاته فهي ثلاثة بمقابلة الثلاثة التي اثني بها النبي صلي الله عليه وسلم علي ربه ليلة الاسراء
As for his saying: 'Peace be unto you, O Prophet, the mercy of Allah and His blessings (السلام عليك أيها النبي ورحمة الله وبركاته)," these are three in exchange for the three with which the Prophet Sallallahu Alayhi Wasallam praised his Lord on the Night of Isrā (Mi’raj).”

Shaykh Ahmad Al-Tahtāwi also mentions in “Hāshiyah Al-Tahtāwi ‘Alā Marāqi Al-Fallāh”:
إذا قعد أحدكم في الصلاة فليقل التحيات لله والصلوات والطيبات... وهي الصادرة منه ليلة الإسراء
"When one of you sits in Salah, he should say: التحيات لله والصلوات والطيباتThis (Tashahhud) originated from him (i.e. the Prophet Sallallahu Alayhi Wasallam) on the Night of Isrā'. [3]

[1]  [مرقاة المفاتيح، كتاب الصلاة، باب التشهد، ج٢، ص٧٣٢، دار الفكر]
[2]  واما قوله السلام عليك أيها النبي ورحمة الله وبركاته فهي ثلاثة بمقابلة الثلاثة التي اثني بها النبي صلي الله عليه وسلم علي ربه ليلة الاسراء الخ
[معارف السنن، باب ما جاء في التشهد، ج٣، ص٨٥، سعيد]
عَنْ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ، قَالَ: كُنَّا إِذَا كُنَّا مَعَ النَّبِيِّ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ فِي الصَّلاَةِ، قُلْنَا: السَّلاَمُ عَلَى اللَّهِ مِنْ عِبَادِهِ، السَّلاَمُ عَلَى فُلاَنٍ وَفُلاَنٍ، فَقَالَ النَّبِيُّ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ: " لاَ تَقُولُوا السَّلاَمُ عَلَى اللَّهِ، فَإِنَّ اللَّهَ هُوَ السَّلاَمُ، وَلَكِنْ قُولُوا: التَّحِيَّاتُ لِلَّهِ وَالصَّلَوَاتُ وَالطَّيِّبَاتُ، السَّلاَمُ عَلَيْكَ أَيُّهَا النَّبِيُّ وَرَحْمَةُ اللَّهِ وَبَرَكَاتُهُ، السَّلاَمُ عَلَيْنَا وَعَلَى عِبَادِ اللَّهِ الصَّالِحِينَ، فَإِنَّكُمْ إِذَا قُلْتُمْ أَصَابَ كُلَّ عَبْدٍ فِي السَّمَاءِ أَوْ بَيْنَ السَّمَاءِ وَالأَرْضِ، أَشْهَدُ أَنْ لاَ إِلَهَ إِلَّا اللَّهُ، وَأَشْهَدُ أَنَّ مُحَمَّدًا عَبْدُهُ وَرَسُولُهُ، ثُمَّ يَتَخَيَّرُ مِنَ الدُّعَاءِ أَعْجَبَهُ إِلَيْهِ، فَيَدْعُو
[صحيح البخاري، كتاب الاذان، باب ما يتخير من الدعاء بعد التثهد، ج١، ص١٦٧، دار طوق النجاة]
[سنن النسائي، كتاب السهو، باب تخيير الدعاء بعد الصلاة، ج٣، ص٥٠، مكتب المطبوعات الاسلامية]
[إعلاء السنن، كتاب الصلاة، باب التشهد ووجوبه، ج٣، ص١١٤، ادارة القرآن كراتشي]
[3]  إذا قعد أحدكم في الصلاة فليقل "التحيات لله والصلوات والطيبات"... جمع تحية من حيا فلان فلانا إذا دعا له عند ملاقاته كقولهم حياك الله أي أبقاك والمراد هنا أعز الألفاظ التي تدل على الملك والعظمة وكل عبادة قولية لله تعالى والمراد بالصلوات هنا العبادات البدنية والطيبات العبادات المالية لله تعالى وهي الصادرة منه ليلة الإسراء فلما قال ذلك النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم بإلهام من الله سبحانه رد الله عليه وحياه بقوله "السلام عليك أيها النبي ورحمة الله وبركاته" فقابل التحيات بالسلام الذي هو تحية الإسلام وقابل الصلوات بالرحمة التي هي بمعناهاوقابل الطيبات بالبركات المناسبة للمال لكونها النمو والكثرة فلما أفاض الله سبحانه وتعالى على النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم بالثلاثة مقابل الثلاثة والنبي أكرم خلق الله وأجودهم عطف بإحسانه من ذلك الفيض لإخوانه الأنبياء والملائكة وصالحي المؤمنين من الإنس والجن فقال: "السلام علينا وعلى عباد الله الصالحين" فعمهم به كما قال صلى الله عليه وسلم: "إنكم إذا قلتموها أصابت كل عبد صالح في السماء والأرض" وليس أشرف من العبودية في صفات المخلوقين هي الرضا بما يفعل الرب والعبادة ما يرضيه والعبودية أقوى من العبادة لبقائها في العقبى بخلاف العبادة والصالح القائم بحقوق الله تعالى وحقوق العباد فلما أن قال ذلك صلى الله عليه وسلم إحسانا منه شهد أهل الملكوت الأعلى والسماوات وجبريل بوحي وإلهام بأن قال كل منهم "أشهد أن لا إله إلا الله وأشهد أن محمدا عبده ورسوله" أي أعلم وأبين وجمع بين أشرف أسمائه وبين أشرف وصف للمخلوق وأرقى وصف ملتزم للنبوة لمقام الجمع
قوله: "لمقام الجمع" أي لأن المقام للجمع فكما جمع في التحيات الخ وفي السلام عليك الخ بين ثلاث كذلك جمع له هنا بين ثلاث أشرف الأسماء وهو محمد وأشرف صفات الإنسان وهو العبودية وأشرف وصف مستلزم للنبوة وهو الرسالة
[حاشية الطحطاوي علي مراقي الفلاح، كتاب الصلاة، فصل في كيفية تركيب افعال الصلاة، ج١، ص٣٨٧، مكتبة الاسد]
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Also cited by Shah Abdul Haq Dehlvi (ra)  in Madaarij-un-Nubawwat:
Faqih Abul Layth has cited it with an incomplete chain in Tambihul Ghafilin, pg.396

‘Allamah ‘Ayni has mentioned that Imam Farwadi has reported it in his book: ‘Thawabul; ‘ibadat‘ (See  Al-Binayah, vol.2 pg.308)
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The shortest version is that of ʿAbd al-Laīf Ibn al-Malak, also known as Ibn Firishtah, in his Mabāriq al-Azhār.

This is the same text quoted by Mullā ʿAlī al-Qārī in his Mirqāt al-Mafātī.
روي : أنه لما عرج به أثنى على الله تعالى بهذه الكلمات ، فقال الله تعالى : «السلام عليك أيها النبي ورحمة الله وبركاته» ، فقال عليه السلام : «السلام علينا وعلى عباد الله الصالحين» ، فقال جبريل : «أشهد أن لا إله إلا الله ، وأشهد أن محمدا عبده ورسوله» .
It has been narrated that when he (s) was raised above [for the Miʿrāj], he praised Allāh Most High with these words [i.e. al-Taiyyāt], whereupon Allāh Most High remarked: ‘Peace be upon you, O Prophet, and Allāh’s Mercy and His Blessings.’ He [i.e. the Prophet] (s) responded: ‘Peace be upon us and Allāh’s righteous servants.’ Thereafter, Jibrīl said: ‘I testify that there is no deity but Allāh, and I testify that Muammad is His slave and messenger.’” [  Mabāriq al-Azhār 1/244 and Mirqāt al-Mafātī under adīth (909).]

This has also been quoted by Imām al-Qurubī in his Tafsīr from Ibn ʿAbbās with only a partial chain. Preceding the incident is a short academic discussion regarding whether the incident is related to the relevant verses or not.
He states:
روي عن الحسن ومجاهد والضحاك : أن هذه الآية كانت في قصة المعراج ، وهكذا روي في بعض الروايات عن ابن عباس ، وقال بعضهم : جميع القرآن نزل به جبريل عليه السلام على محمد إلا هذه الآية فإن النبي : هو الذي سمع ليلة المعراج، وقال بعضهم : لم يكن ذلك في قصة المعراج ، لأن ليلة المعراج كانت بمكة وهذه السورة كلها مدنية ، فأما من قال : إنها كانت ليلة المعراج قال : لما صعد النبي وبلغ في السموات في مكان مرتفع ومعه جبريل حتى جاوز سدرة المنتهى فقال له جبريل : «إني لم أجاوز هذا الموضع ولم يؤمر بالمجاوزة أحد هذا الموضع غيرك» ، فجاوز النبي حتى بلغ الموضع الذي شاء الله ، فأشار إليه جبريل بأن «سلم على ربك» ، فقال النبي : «التحيات لله والصلوات والطيبات» . قال الله تعالى : «السلام عليك أيها النبي ورحمة الله وبركاته» ، فأراد النبي أن يكون لأمته حظ في السلام فقال : «السلام علينا وعلى عباد الله الصالحين» ، فقال جبريل وأهل السموات كلهم : «أشهد أن لا إله إلا الله وأشهد أن محمدا عبده ورسوله» .

It is narrated from al-asan, Mujāhid and al-Dahhak that this āyah was in the story of Miʿrāj.
Likewise has been said in some narrations from Ibn ʿAbbās.

Some maintain that Jibrīl descended with the whole Qur’ān upon Muhammad(s) except for this āyah, because the Prophet(s) was the one who heard on the night of Miʿrāj.

* Others maintain it did not occur in the incident of Miʿrāj because the night of Miʿrāj had occurred in [the era of] Makkah; and this Sūrah, in its totality, was revealed in Madīnah.

Consequently, those who say it was in the night of Miʿrāj also say when the Prophet (s) ascended and reached the heavens in a lofty place, Jibrīl was with him until he [i.e. the Prophet(s)] had gone beyond the Sidrat al-Muntahā. Jibrīl said to him: ‘I cannot go beyond this juncture; none have been permitted to pass this point other than you.’ The Prophet (s)passed through until he reached the place which Allāh had willed. Jibrīl indicated to him [i.e. the Prophet(s)] to convey Salām to his Lord, so the Prophet(s) said: ‘All verbal, physical and monetary deeds are for Allāh…’” The rest is as mentioned above. [Tafsīr al-Qurubī under [al-Baqarah: 2/285-286].

Imām al-Qurtubī seems to have taken it almost verbatim from Abū ’l-Layth al-Samarqandī, who mentioned it in his Bahr al-ʿUlūm ( 1/189 (d. 373 AH).

It has also been mentioned in a later work known as Ruh al-Bayān of Abū ’l-Fidā al-Khalwatī (5/21 (d. 1127 AH) 
The text is as follows:
وروى- أنه عليه السلام عرج من السماء السابعة إلى السدرة على جناح جبريل ، ثم منها على الرفرف ، وهو بساط عظيم . قال الشيخ عبد الوهاب الشعراني : هو نظير المحفة عندنا . ونادى جبريل من خلفه : يا محمد ، إن الله يثنى عليك فاسمع وأطع ولا يهولنك كلامه ، فبدأ عليه السلام بالثناء ، وهو قوله : «التحيات لله والصلوات والطيبات» أي : العبادات القولية والبدنية والمالية ، فقال تعالى : «السلام عليك أيها النبي ورحمة الله وبركاته» . فعمم عليه السلام سلام الحق ، فقال : «السلام علينا وعلى عباد الله الصالحين» ، فقال جبريل : «أشهد أن لا إله إلا الله وأشهد أن محمدا عبده ورسوله» .

Aside from a few details, the incident is the same as translated above.
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The Tashahhud: A Greeting Beyond Place in Our Prayers 
Shaykh Faraz Rabbani:


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What does At-Tahiyyat mean?

"Abdullah bin Saleh Al-Ijli, said he wanted to find out what it meant and went to a scholar named Al-Kisaai. 
Who said it means blessings. 
He wasn’t completely satisfied with the answer and so he went to another great scholar Muhammed Ibn-ul-Hassan Al Shaibani, he asked the same to him. He told that this is a word that we use to worship Allah.
Abdullah bin Saleh was still not satisfied with the answers then went to Muhammad Ibn-Idrees As-Shafi’ee
Imam Sahai’ee said: why do ask them you have to ask a poet they are not poet...
Imam Shafi’ee explained that when you enter into the court of a king, you offer royal compliments. This is the protocol and the compliments are exclusively for Allah.” ]

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* Al-Bukhari (349) and Muslim (162) narrated from Anas ibn Malik (may Allah be pleased with him) the famous hadeeth of the Isra’ (Prophet’s Night Journey) in which it is reported that the Messenger of Allah (blessings and peace of Allah be upon him) said: “Then Allah revealed what He revealed to me, and enjoined fifty prayers on me every day and night. I came back down to Moosa (blessings and peace of Allah be upon him) and he said: What did your Lord enjoin upon your ummah? I said: Fifty prayers. He said: Go back to your Lord and ask Him to reduce it... I kept going back and forth between my Lord, may He be blessed and exalted, and Moosa (peace be upon him), until He said: ‘O Muhammad, they are five prayers each day and night, for every prayer there will be a tenfold (reward), and that is fifty prayers.” 

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THE HADITH OF ISRA’ AND MI’RAJ:
COMMEMORATING THE PROPHET'S RAPTURE AND ASCENSION TO HIS LORD

Shaykh As-Sayyid Muhammad ibn `Alawi ibn `Abbas al-Maliki al-Hasani

[...]


Then the Prophet(s) saw his Lord, the Glorious, the Exalted, and he fell prostrate, and at that time his Lord spoke to him and said:"O Muhammad!" He(s) replied:"At your service, O Lord!"Allah(SWT) said:"Ask!(sal)."
The Prophet(s) said:
You have taken to Yourself Ibrahim as a friend, and You have given him an immense kingdom. You have spoken to Musa directly, and have given Dawud an immense kingdom and softened iron and subjected the mountains to him. You have given Sulayman an immense kingdom, and subjected the jinn and men and devils to him, as well as the winds, and You have given him a kingdom the like no one may have after him. You have taught `Isa the Torah and the Evangel, and made him heal those born blind and the lepers, and raise up the dead with Your permission, and You have protected him and his mother from the cursed devil so that the devil had no path by which to harm them!
Allah said: "And I have taken you to Myself as My beloved."
The narrator said: It is written in the Torah: habibullah "Allah's Beloved."
Allah continued:
And I have sent you for all people without exception,  a bearer of glad tidings and a warner;  and I have expanded your breast for you  and relieved you of your burden  and exalted your name;  and I am not mentioned except you are mentioned with Me;  and I have made your Community the best Community ever brought out for the benefit of mankind; and I have made your Community a mean and a middle; and I have made your Community in truth the first  and the last of all Communities; and I have made public address (al-khutba) impermissible for your Community unless they first witness that you are My servant and Messenger;  and I have placed certain people in your Community with Evangels for hearts (i.e. repositories of Allah's Book);  and I have made you the first Prophet created and the last one sent and the first one heard in My court;  and I have given you Seven of the Oft-Repeated which I gave to no other Prophet before you (i.e. Surat al-Fatiha);  and I have given you the last verses of Surat al-Baqara which constitute a treasure from under My Throne which I gave to no other Prophet before you;  and I have given you the Kawthar; and I have given you eight arrows (i.e. shares in good fortune): Islam, Emigration (hijra), Jihad, Charity (sadaqa), Fasting Ramadan, Ordering Good, and Forbidding Evil;  and the day I created the heavens and the earth I made obligatory upon you and upon your Community fifty prayers: therefore establish them, you and your Community."

(al-Shami added:)

Abu Hurayra said: Allah's Messenger said: My Lord has preferred me over everyone else (faddalani rabbi):
He has sent me as a mercy to the worlds and to all people without exception,  a bearer of glad tidings and a warner;  He has thrown terror into the hearts of my enemies at a distance of a month's travel;  He has made spoils of war lawful for me while they were not lawful for anyone before me;  the entire earth has been made a ritually pure place of prostration for me;  I was given the words that open, those that close, and those that are comprehensive in meaning (i.e. I was given the apex of eloquence);  My Community was shown to me and there is none of the followers and the followed but he is known to me;  I saw that they would come to a people that wear hair-covered sandals;  I saw that they would come to a people of large faces and small eyes as if they had been pierced with a needle;  nothing of what they would face in the future has been kept hidden from me; and I have been ordered to perform fifty prayers daily. And he has been given three particular merits: He is the master of Messengers (sayyid al-mursalin), the Leader of the Godwary (imam al-muttaqin), and the Chief of those with signs of light on their faces and limbs (qa'id al-ghurr al-muhajjalin). (End of al-Shami's addition.)

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All greetings, blessings and good acts are from You, my Lord.
Greetings to you, O Prophet, and the mercy and blessings of Allah.
Peace be unto us, and unto the righteous servants of Allah.
I bear witness that there is none worthy of worship except Allah.
And I bear witness that Muhammad is His servant and messenger.

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(Edited by ADHM)